英语冲刺-完形填空+小作文摘要解题技巧

目标:6分到7.
完型4分技巧: 和英语水平无关。
红花绿叶原则,
1.     红花词汇(必选的单词) however although yet because
2.     绿叶词汇(必不选的单词)
     since(家族都不选) even since ,now that,what.
     涉及虚拟语气的词汇(表示与现实相反或不相符的情况) if only 但愿. 与过去相反,从句过去完成与现在相反,一般过去时与将来情况相反 would/could+v 所以用if only 最少是过去时.一般在文中很少选择,in case(唯恐,万一以免),lest,or else.(否则要不然)
     表示关于的词 as towith regard toaboutwithin reference to
3.     2-5道红花绿叶词汇.
概率原则
1.     每篇完形填空中,A,B,C,D作为正确选项的个数在4-6之间。
2.     A选项出现的次数最多,蒙一水的A
3.     没有连续三个答案都一样的情况。连续两个答案都连在一起的答案0-3.相邻答案都不一样的概率17-20.
4.     五组答案中至少要出现3个字母作为正确选项,每组接缝处没有连续两个答案是一样的情况。
5.     阅读理解也有此规律。
4-7分技巧:
同义原则:
1.     四个选项中两个或三个实词(名、动、形、副)互为同义时,答案往往在其中。
2.     四个选项中当两个或三个虚词互为同义词是往往都不选,介词,连词,感叹词。
3.     当四个选项有一个共同的意思时,该意思往往不能被选。
逻辑关系题原则:最重要的一个(7个左右),通过前后句的意思及其内在关系来判定答案的题目。(本质上是阅读)。内容:对立因果>并列>总分>递进。
1.表示对立关系:(3分)
     转折:howeverbutyetnevertheless
     让步:althoughthougheven thougheven if much asaswhilewhereas其它:againstinstead ofrather thanadmitignoringon the contraryby constrast
对立关系考点:
后句对前句直接否定是,叫转折。当后句是对前句间接部分否定时,叫让步。Althoughbutbecausefor不能在同一句中同时出现。Althoughbecause从属连词。Butforand)并列连词。从属连词既可以放在句首,又可以放在句中,从属连词放在句中时前面一般不加逗号。而并列连词只能放在句中,前面逗号可加可不加。For后面跟的是一个句就是连词不可以放,如果只是一个名
词时就是介词短语可以随意放的.
   ough做副词时可以插入状语。放于中间时前后都要有逗号。
   whilewhereas的区别。While可引导省略式的状语从句,whereas不行。
While可引导省略式的状语从句的条件:一从句主语和主句主语相一致,二,从句是
系表结构。满足这两个条件后,从句的主语和系东西可省略。
 
例:The phenomenon provides a way for companies to remain globally competitive   48  avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens   49  by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans.
48.[A] but [B] while [C] and [D] whereas
The phenomenon is avoiding while:尽管,虽然…..的时候于此同时.
   判断对立关系的标准:
A.根据句子意思标准.
B.根据褒贬色彩。
He must use this surplus in three ways: as seed for sowing, as an insurance   43   the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to   44  old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to   45  the soil.
"Benefits" have been weighed   40  "harmful" outcomes. And generalizations have proved difficult
40.[A] above   [B] upon       [C] against     [D] with
C.根据句式结构,前面肯定后面否定,或者前面否定,后面肯定.
例如:not题目两个句子之间的关系;选项是一些表对立关系的词。
All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act,   40  a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.
40.[A] provided  [B] since   [C] although [D]supposing
38 This does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. 38 they can help students acquire a sense of commitment by   39  for roles that are within their   40  and their attention spans and by having clearly stated rules.
38. [A] on the contrary [B] on the average C] on the whole [D] on the other hand
  B项一定要有数字才能用,D项一定要有on one hand
48 31题。P54 6题。每年都有一道not题目。
注意,逻辑关系题目优先做的理由
A.   选项都认识 b范围确定 c.往往不需要通读全文,只要看前后句子.
三板斧:红花绿叶,逻辑关系,同义原则。P45
2.因果关系
表原因的词:becausein thatnow thatsinceasforas a result ofconsidering
表结果的词:so thatsuch thatas a result lead toconsequentlythereforehencethusso
P41 46 p52 34题目Families have also   33  changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents;   34  , children are likely to have less supervision at home   35  was common in the traditional family   36 .
34. [A] contrarily   [B] consequently    [C]similar        [D] simultaneously
因果关系 A是对比关系。Cd是并列关系用词,但是文中分号的作用已经说明逻辑关系,不用再用cd
Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families,   26  the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes   27  lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are   28  to criticism.
26.[A] considering [B] ignoring  [C] highlighting  [D] discarding
27.[A] on [B] in  [C] for  [D] with
表对立,c之所以不行使因为和also重复。The homeless make up a growing percentage of America’s population. __1__ homelessness has reached such proportions that local government can’t possibly __2__. To help homeless people __3__ independence, the federal government must support job training programs, __4__ the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing.
1. [A] Indeed [B] Likewise  [C] Therefore    [D] Furthermore
Such…..that 表因果所以c不可选,重复了.
3并列关系.常用词:andas well aslikewisewhilesimilarlysimultaneouslymeanwhile.
And题三种做题方法:
a,and前后选择同意词.2003 23.此考法比较少
B.and前后考同一个范围的词。如0325题。
C.句子对应成分分析。如形对形。
A variety of activities should be organized   35  participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to   36  else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants   37 .
37. [A] off       [B] down      [C] out      [D] alone
Let down失望,沮丧let off 泄漏 let out 淘汰 let alone 更不用说,不用去管。
Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious   21  to how they can best   22  such changes.
 21. [A] thought   [B] idea        [C] opinion     [D] advice
句子之间的并列关系。Give ideaopiniononabout 搭配不对give advice to sb on sth
Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories   21 2003) on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior   22  they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through   23  with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in   24  to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status   25  as a rejection of middle-class values.(
21.[A] acting [B] relying [C] centering [D] commenting
22.[A] before [B] unless [C] until [D] because
23.[A] interactions [B] assimilation [C] cooperation [D] consultation
24.[A] return [B] reply [C] reference [D] response
25.[A] or [B] but rather  [C] but  [D] or else
本段总分结构,23句话是并列结构。focusing on …..为焦点,对应21题目的选项.
In reference to 关于绿叶词 in reply to ……进行答复 in return to作为…..的报答. In response to …..作出反应.failure to 没能够,未能够.
4.     总分关系:for examplefor instance(插入状语)such asincluding.
:2001 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases   31  the trial of Rosemary West.
31.[A] as to [B] for instance [C] in particular [D] such as
prominent cases重大案件the trial of Rosemary West 罗斯玛丽的小案 as to关于绿叶.b要当选前后要有逗号.
2003However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be   27  to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers,   28 . publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews,   29  student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs.
28. [A] in effect    [B] as a result    [C] for example    [D] in a sense
13年来考察的插入状语. for examplefor instance though.
5.     递进关系(考的不多):stillalsoindeedfurhermore(进一步)、moreover(而且,除外)highlighting(突出强调)
a.递进关系是并列关系的一种。
B.stilalso的区别。Still是指意见事情的递进。Also可以指一件,有可以指两件事情。
C.furthermore仅指同一间事情的递进,indeed,可以指一件,有可以指两件事情。
最好能做对8-9个。
复现原则:某一概念在完型填空中出现两次或者两次以上时,它的提法应该是以一样的,也就是相对应的成分彼此互为答案。
The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it __14__ to keep all smell receptors working all the time but can __15__ new receptors if necessary. This may __16__ explain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells we simply do not need to be. We are not __17__ of the usual smell of our own house but we __18__ new smells when we visit someone else’s. The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors __19__ for unfamiliar and emergency signals __20__ the smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire.
  16. [A]stil  [B]also  [C]otherwise [D]nevertheless
17. [A]sure  [B]sick  [C]aware  [D]tired
18. [A]tolerate [B]repel  [C]neglect  [D]notice
19. [A]availabe [B]reliable [C]identifiable[D]suitable
20. [A]similar to[B]such as [C]along with [D]aside from
2003…..Changes in the social structure may indirectly   29  juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy (that   30  to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment   31  )make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in   32  lead more youths into criminal behavior.
Families have also   33  changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents;   34  , children are likely to have less supervision at home   35  was common in the traditional family   36 . This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Othe……
29. [A] affect [B] reduce    [C] check  [D] reflect
30. [A] point [B] lead  [C] come  [D] amount
31. [A] in general  [B] on average    [C] by contrast     [D] at length
32. [A] case      [B]  short [C] turn   [D] essence
33. [A]     survived [B] noticed  [C] undertaken  [D] experienced
34. [A] contrarily  [B] consequently   [C]similar    [D] simultaneously
35. [A] than  [B] that [C] which  [D] as
36. [A] system  [B] structure  [C] concept  [D] heritage
31,that处,名词后加that,两种可能性定语从句或者同位语,完整的一句话是同位语,缺成分的是从句。本处缺主语。根据主语和宾语的逻辑关系来选择,他们的逻辑关系直接决定谓语的选择。
31.后面是的make/keep/find +宾语+宾语补足语.13年之考过这三个词引导过宾语和宾补.
33前面also表示递进,是三段引领的总分结构,为了做36题目.36题呼应29前面的.
2004的要背一背.2003的要背一背.
表语原则: 如果所考空是标语,那么主语就是线索当标语是名词时它和主语是对等关系;当标语是形容词时或相当于形容词时和主语是修饰关系.第五步:v nadjadv
As was discussed before, it was not   22  the 19thcentury that the newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic   23 , following in the wake of the pamphlet and the book and in the   24  of the periodical. It was during the same time that the communications revolution   25  up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading   26  through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures   27  the 20th century world of the motor car and the airplane. Not everyone sees that process in   28  It is important to do so.
23.[A] means
[B] method
[C] medium
[D] measure
The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be   49  to explain or describe in a   50 that can be understood by his listeners.
49.[A] obscure [B] difficult [C]impossible [D] unable
主语是the speaker .只有d可以修饰人.
杀熟原则:
标准:是否在历年真题中出现过,05年的为例.2005年与历年真题的对应关系,
1.C – 97p42 48A. 6.A – 9744 A     9.D-97 48D
10.B-03P51,33A 11.C-94p39,48C 13.D- 04P53 39C
17.C-04.p53,39 B     18.D- 04. p33.B     19.A 97 .P43 45C
20.B-01.P46.31D  复习700个单词够了。
完形填空的7分以上技巧
1.       动词题解题方法。
 ①看主语,注意主谓搭配一致。
  a.看主语是人还是物.
主语必须是人的动词:believe,doubt,intend,require,respect,regard,be impressed by,notice,present.
主语必须是物的:manifest
  ②主谓一致原则 (考的比较少了)p39 43. Too often, careless use of words   43  a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener.
43.[A] encourages [B] prevents [C] destroy [D] offers
A.鼓励 D.提供,求婚.     单数
③看宾语,注意动宾搭配一致。
a.看宾语是具体名词还是抽象名词。
He must use this surplus in three ways: as seed for sowing, as an insurance   43  the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to   44  old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to   45  the soil.
45.[A] enhance [B] mix [C] feed [D] raise
DRaise 养活 a.提高增强 enhance+抽象名词如效率,质量等。
enhance+抽象名词
feedlabelfasten+具体名词。
Tighten+抽象具体都可以。
In a significant   32  of legal controls over the press, Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor,
32.[A] tightening [B] intensifying [C] focusing [D] fastening
动名词+of+宾语=动词+宾语。同义原则adp45.45 p46 32 p43.50.
b. 看宾语是人还是物。
宾语只能是人的动词,assureimpressside withshare withconfide to
Credit sth. to sb
宾语既可以是人有可以是物的动词:ensure, agree with.
Concerns were raised   49 有罪判决. witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to   50  guilty verdict.
50.[A] assure [B] confide [C] ensure [D] guarantee
同义原则a,c,d.assure sb .of sth.  Asure sb.that.
P46.50 P48 38  P43 50.
The communications revolution has   38  both work and leisure and how we think and feel both about place and time, but there have been   39  views about its economic, political, social and cultural implications
38.[A] regarded
[B] impressed
[C] influenced
[D] effected
选择一个主语和宾语都是sth的东西. Impressed主动语态宾语一定要是人.同义原则.cd.effect都是不良的影响.
c.根据主语和宾语的逻辑关系来判定动词.(考的比较少,但是未来的发展方向.
Changes economy   fewer jobs.
A.lead to  b.amount to
P46 38. p52 30.主宾一起看的题目.
D.从及物和不及物的角度出发做题.重点不及物,及物动词太多了.词组也存在及物和不及物的. P45.44 p43.49. p48 25 p39 44. p56 2..
E.根据动词后的介词及介词短语解题. laid down that everybody was   45  to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families.
45.[A] authorized [B] credited [C] entitled [D] qualified
To是介词 p46(37,45)
F.考虑句子中能够对动词过程限制的成分.(一般只形容词)
In order to    old agricultural implements
A.purchase  b. supplement c.replace.
背东西时就要注意这些的方向.
2.     名词题
A.     名词作主语时,谓语和标语就是线索.
B.     名词是宾语是谓语东西就是线索.
C.     根据名词前后介词判断.名词和介词的固定搭配就是.
Approach to, key to, answer to ,confidence in,confident of.
Specialist in,attitude to/toward ,research into,by contrast.
P43.48. p40 45. p53 24. purpose for
d.当名词后出现定语从句或者同位语从句,从句是线索。将是名词的重要发展方向。
_11__ when homeless individuals manage to find a __12__ that will give them three meals a day and a place to sleep at night, a good number still spend the bulk of each day __13__ the street.
 12. [A] lodging [B] shelter  [C] dwelling  [D] house
A.旅店 b.避难所.救济所. C栖息地
P46 33.49.  p48.37.  p50.25. p52.35 p56.12.
E.通过已有名词判定所选名字.  39  of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a   40  of media protest when he said the   41  of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges   42  to Parliament.
39.[A]Release [B] Publication [C] Printing [D] Exposure
Exposure to 曝光,暴露,接触 c.印刷 letter是单数.a.发行.发行要很多的.b.发表.
P46. 39.41
形容词题:
A.     形容词做标语时,主语就是线索.p39 49 . p50.27.26
B.     有副词对形容词进行修饰时,副词就是线索.
2001 Human Rights legally   44  in Britain, laid down that(和法律有关系)
44.[A] binding [B] convincing [C] restraining [D] sustaining
P46.44
c.有多个修饰成分同时修饰一个名词,答案就在修饰成分中。
2001 will introduce a   33  bill that will propose making payments to witnesses   34  and will strictly control the amount of   35  that can be given to a case   36  a trial begins.
33.[A]sketch [B] rough [C] preliminary [D] draft
Bill受到前面和后面定语从句的修饰。33前面的选择取决于后面的定语从句。
P46 33.  p50 33.
C.     形容词修饰名词是,名词就是线索
. 39  of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a   40 抗议) of media protest when he said(
40.[A]storm [B] rage [C] flare [D] flash
Rage愤怒,语义重复, flare 一闪而过的光 flash 一闪而过的光(同义原则本题失手)
副词题:
A.     利用主旨做题 p45.50.
B.     同义原则.p43.46 p51.33 p56.33
C.     利用时态做题.p42.47.瞬间性的副词不能用在进行时态之中的.
 it is   47  changing the relationship between people and their jobs.
47.[A] instantly(瞬间) [B] reversely [C] fundamentally [D] sufficiently(也不能)
What是绿叶,what三大特点
A.     what引导主宾表从句.
B.     What前部能用名词.不引导定语和同位语从句.
C.     What 后面的从句不完整.d.从句不完整,98%定语从句,1%what从句,1%省略式的状语从句.定语从句和状语从句缺少的成分不同,定语从句缺少的是名词和状语,省略是状语从句缺少的是动词和主语,大部分从句是完整的.
完形填空中的收尾:
完形填空解题的顺序:先看选项,1.红花绿叶原则,2.逻辑关系题目。3.同义原则。4杀熟原则 5.固定搭配和从句原则在看文章
针对文章:读文章手段,看态度。什么都不做划,notand第一步:not题(找not,两个句子间前否后肯,前肯后否。选项前后对立逻辑关系词汇)第二步:and题目,第三步:标语题。第四步:复现词。第五步:v n adj adv 第六步:概率原则
固定搭配近年考的比较多的:中心词是动词的固定搭配.从句原则which不能引导定语从句要用that,if-whether.
定语从句永远不能省略动词。
定语从句:as .than, but.
As
1.as可以做关系代词引导定语从句, 其先行及词可以名词也可以是句子;
2.as引导的定语从句位置灵活.As we know,he is honest.
3.aswhich的区别
A.引导限制性的定语从句中, as只能用在固定结构里.as…..as. so…..as. such…….as
The same ….as which没有限制.
I have many books which displayed here.
I have as mangy books as displayed here.
B.在引导非限制性定语从句时, as表示,从句和主句是一致或顺承关系. which从句和主句是不一致或对立关系.
非现实性和限制性,一个逗号的区别而已.
He has been married ,as we expect.
He has been married ,which we unexpect.  P39.45.
A variety of activities should be organized   35  participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to   36  else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants   37 .
和….一样.第二个as 引导定语从句.
Than引导定语从句
1.     只能作为关系代词引导定语从句,缺名词是可以用than.
2.     主句要有比较级.
3.     than 后的从句缺主语.
4.     than引导定语从句时,对比成分不明显,而引导比较状语从句时,对比成分很明显。
He is taller than I(比较状语)
Families have also   33  changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents;   34  , children are likely to have less supervision at home   35  was common in the traditional family   36 .
35. [A] than  [B] that     [C] which       [D] as
当先行词用最高级修饰是,that不用which。只有有比较级别就是than。
There should be more anxieties over the risk of getting cancer than   in the mind of the public
Aexist  b exists  c existing  d existed
But引导定语从句(14年尚未出现)
1.     but做关系代词,引导定语从句
2.     主句要有否定成分。
3.     but 相当于that。。。。notwho。。。。not
例:There is no one but errs =there is no one that doesnt err


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